Capacitors are electronic components which have a specific electrical capacitance that can store the electric charge through the circuit .capacitance is the value of capacitor which measures how much electric charge is stored with 1 volt voltage . They are made out of any two metal separated by insulating material called dielectric.
TYPES OF capacitors
Physically there are two types of capacitor available in market
Type -1 Through-hole These capacitor come with long, pliable leads which can be stuck into a breadboard or hand-soldered into a prototyping board or printed circuit board (PCB). These capacitors are usually more useful in DIY projects , breadboarding, prototyping, or in any case where you’d find difficult to solder small SMD type capacitor to your PCB . The long leads usually require trimming, and these resistors are bound to take up much more space than their surface-mount counterparts. You can buy a resistor as low as 0.1$ per capacitor piece
Type-2 Surface-mount These capacitors are usually tiny black rectangles, terminated on either side with even smaller, shiny, silver, conductive edges. These capacitors are intended to sit on top of PCBs, where they’re soldered onto pads or foot-prints . Because these capacitors are so small, they’re usually set into place by a pick and place machine in the PCB factory and , and sent through an oven where solder melts and holds them in place. These types of capacitors are very hard to assemble by hand . We need special tools to assemble it by hand precisely and accurately .
With electric characteristic of capacitor we can further classify the capacitor in different types
Type-1 ceramic capacitor : The ceramic capacitors are most widely used capacitor . These capacitors are made up of ceramic A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid material
comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalentbonds.
ceramic capacitor have good resistivity so it can acts as a good di-electric inside the capacitor .These types of capacitor are used as decoupling applications . The size of these capacitor are smaller as compared to other types of capacitor .
Type-2 Electrolytic capacitor : These type of capacitor have positive and negative terminal as the name suggested these capacitor forms
anion and cation on its plate . Generally these capacitors are used when we required a large value of capacitance . Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used in DC power supply circuits due to their large capacitance’s and small size to help reduce the ripple voltage or for coupling and decoupling applications . These caps also notorious for leakage allowing small amounts of current (on the order of nA) to run through the dielectric from one terminal to the other. This makes electrolytic caps less-than-ideal for energy storage, which is unfortunate given their high capacity and voltage rating.
Type-3 Super capacitor Super capacitors are special purpose capacitor designed specially for battery or charge storing device , They are widely used in computer UPS and high voltage storage device . Since they are super they have high capacitance range in farad , it means if you touched one charged super capacitor it will inject thousands of ampere inside your body you will burn immediately , so do not think about touching any super capacitors .
Beside these types of capacitor as technology is growing day by day , there are new advance types of electronics component , inside integrated circuit you will see 1000 times smaller than your hair capacitor so as your application and need you will find those types of capacitor for your need .
Note: If you didn't find exactly value of capacitor you are searching for then you can make series and parallel connection of capacitors to match exact value . If you connect capacitor parallel the total capacitance will be sum of individual capacitance and if you connect capacitors series then total capacitance will be multiplication of each value divided by sum of value . alternatively there are lots of calculator available online you can use those capacitors if you hate doing math .